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A tobbes szm jele az -s, olykor, bizonyos hangok utn az -es. A rendhagy tobbes szm alakokat kiejtisel egytitt jeloli a sztr: woman [vumon] tbsz: women [vimin] n.
Ezek soha nem llnak tobbes szmban. Ezeket asz trban nemjeloltiik meg. Jelcllttik viszont, ha valami a magyarral ellenttben tobbs szmri - akr -s vg , akr nem: police 1po-LSZ] grapes [grpsz] tbsz sz l tbsz.
It depends. Mskor azonban a fi nvi igerrv to-ja is belekertilt a szszedve. A tanul sztrhaszncikkbe, ez mindig lkovrrel l figyelmt szeretnnk vele felhvni a helyes szerkezetre: able to [bol] kpes, tud She is able to drive a lorry.
Ha egy rott alakhoz t bb kiejts tartozik, vagy ha egy sznak szmos jelentse van, s ez esetleg a szcikk ttekinthet sgtsodorn veszlybe , a sz t kt szcikkben talljuk lneg.
Erre kis jel figyelmeztet: :. Nvel ket tetttink azok el a fldrajzi nevek el, amelyeket nvel vel hasznlunk. Ugyanezrt a hagyomnyos sztri nyelvtanja.
A hagyomnyos sztri nyelvtanban ez a kifejezs: change one's mind. Pll give you a lift. Iok-SZEPT] elfogad able to [bol] kpes, tud acceptable [ok-S Z E PTobol] elfogadhat aboard [ -BORD] a fedlzeiaccess [ok-SZESZ] hozzt.
The old man, on being asked what he was looking at, replied that he was turning over the leaves of the Look in which al] marriages were entered, and that the bag he had contained the red string by which the feet of all those who were to be mated were tied.
The old man pointed out to him the maiden he was to marry, who was then only four years old but who was so ugly that Wai Ku bribed a slave to kill lier.
She was not killed, however, and Wai Ku did ultimately marry her, thereby verifying the prediction of the old man in the moon.
In former times the bride and bridegroom used to pledge each other in cups made out of a gourd. It is usual now to have two cups joined by a red string, which are symbolical of the union.
Legge, pages and Yii formed a plan of escape and asked his wife' if she would run away with him. It was a rule of the Chou dynasty that marriage should take place iu the inicldle of spring.
Sadly do I bid thee adieu ciimson leaf. May'st thou reucli unharraed the haunts of men. He pulled the piece of silk held by the third daughter, who was a beauty, and thus obtained her as his wife.
Princess Ch'ang asked if her daughter Chiao would not do. To this the Emperor Wu replied that if he could gain her, he would enshrine her in a golden house.
For Wei Ku, the man of the moon, and the red string, see ante, page , No. Yung Po was a person who distributed congee to passers-by free of charge.
On one occasion a stranger asked him why lie did not distribute vegetable broth. He replied that he had no seed from which, to grow vegetables.
Several years after Yung- - Po applied for the hand of a maiden of the family, who was a famous beauty. The Hsii family laughed at the idea, but said that if he could produce two precious stones, he might have their daughter, thinking of course that Yung Po would never be able to comply with the condition.
He, however, went to where he had planted the pebbles, and there he found five sets of precious stones, with which lie returned to the Hsii family, the members of which, though astonished beyond measure, gave him their daughter in marriage.
There they amused themselves, and when young gentlemen came to visit, they selected as their husbands those whom, they fancied. On the 7th day of the 7th moon magpies are said to form a l i'idgc hj which the spinster crosses the milky way.
See ante, page 5, No. All suitors had to shoot two arrows at the peacocks, Tao I having secretly resolved to give his daughter as a wife to the suitor who shot tlie peacocks in the eye.
CHAPTEB XIV. T'ai Wang, Wang Chi, and Wdn Wang stood to one another in the relation of grandfather, fatliev, son. Their wives were all celebrated for their excellence and virtue.
For an account of Chieh and Mei Hsi see Mayers, Nos. For an account of Chou and T'an Chi see Mayers, Nos.. For an acconnfc of Yu and Pao Ssii see Mayers, No.
One said "to the sprinkling of salt in tha heavens. Hsiao Man's waist was as slender willow branch. For an account of P'an Fei see Mayers, No.
For an account of Hsiao Man see Mayers, No. Wu Cliiang-hsien's surpassing loveliness might be fed on. For Chang Li-hua, see Mayers, No.
When she breathed, it formed a rich, perfumed vapour. For an account of Li Chiian see Mayers, No. T'ai-chen, a designation of Yang Kuei-fei. See Mayers, N"o.
For T'i Ying see Mayers, No. When everyone else ran off on the approach of a gang of robbers, she alone remained to defend her mother-in-law, and thus obtained the good-will of the robbers.
A village matron killed a fowl out of compliment to a stronger. These are female worthies. The second allusion refers to an incident in the life of Wu-ti of the Han dynasty.
Chen Cliung-'s wife, dreading she might fall from virtue, preferred to fall over a cliff. These are types of female cliastity. Ts'ao Ling-nii swore n vow and cut off her nose with, a knife.
These are types of female purity. The widow burst out into a loud wail, and seizing a chopper cut off her arm and threw it on the ground.
The concubine Hsii Hui took up a pen and finislied an essay without stopping. These are types of women of talent. For Meng-kwang, see ante page , No.
Kwoli Sliili destroyed her lmsband's line. These are examples of jealousy among women. When his Avife, Liu Shih, wished to destroy their hair to make them bald, the Emperor placed the girls in a separate house.
The child, pining for its nurse, also died and the family line came to an end. The princess of Ch'i caused the conflagration of the temple of Allah.
These are types of lewdness among women. Chia's daughter was too fond e,of her father's secretary. Chia, perceiving the perfume and fearing disgrace, gave his daughter in marriage ta his secretary.
The second allusion refers to a daughter of the Prince of Ch'i who made an assignation with a young man, a former playmate, in the temple of Allah on New Year's day.
The young man went there first and, being iired out, went off into a sound sleep. The princess arrived later and, finding the young man asleep, took off a bangle with which they had formerly played as children and, placing it on the young man's breast, went away.
The young man on waking' was so- grievously disappointed that he set the temple on fire. To engrave a picture of the woman of Wu Yen is intolerable.
These are types of ugly women. When Hsi Shih a famous beauty of old was distressed in mind, she knitted her brow.
An ugly woman of the village, seeing how beautiful she looked, went home and, having worked herself into a fit frame of mind, knitted her brows.
The result was that the rich people of the place barred up their doors and would not come out, while the poor people took their wives and children and departed elsewhere.
That woman saw the beauty of knitted brows, but she did not see wherein the beauty of knitted brows lay in suitability to tlie individual.
A stream ran through the village. Those dwelling to the East of the stream were called the Eastern Shih, among whom lived the ill-fated lass referred to.
Among the Western Shih lived the good-looking girl. Tliese cannot he admitted among liuman beings but may be placed bv tliemselves for purposes, of mirtli and amusement.
RELATTOXsS BY AFFIX IT Y. H5 CHAPTER XV. Whosoever first sits on this shall be he. The old ltuly when building a house employed a geomaiicei', wlio propliesiecl that it would produce a famous num.
An expression used l. For an account of the two latter celebrities see Mayers, Nos. G31 and Referring to two men, who married sisters, going in foi" their examination, lapel to lapel and sleeve to sleeve, and taking the Han Lin degree.
CHAPTER XVI. This refers to a custom still in vogue of placing certain uv tides before a child Avhon a year old and prognosticating' wluit his future will be from the nature of the article ho happens to pick up first.
As the lan is the most fragrant flower of a " State, so shall men acknowledge and love him. For an account of Chi see Mayers, Xo. According to Mao, " she accompanied the Emperor at the time of the vernal equinox, 'when the swallow made its appearance, to sacrifice and pray to the first niatchinakiT, and the result was the Lirth of Sieh.
For an account of Chang Yuch sec Mayers, Xo. Fiji- an account of Lao Tzu xcp Mayers, Xo. These trees were plai. AGE AND YOUTH. Eiglity yi.
Sixty years is called longevity of the lowest order. Wlien a full-grown la J, lie danced tlie Hsiang of King Wn.
See Mencius, Lcgge, page 2. CHAPTER XVII. Lad ribs wliich were all in one piece and was the prince "who rnised Chin to be leader of the States.
He was a prime minister, famous both for his military and civil accompl i sh men ts. V one is expressed by " being held by the elbow.
The two rulers of Cli'in unci Chao met at Mien Cli'i. When both had feasted well and partaken freely of wine, the chief minister of Ch'in- requested the ruler of Chao to favour them with some music, Avith which request he at once complied.
The chief minister of CLao then asked the ruler of Ch'in to play something, but no notice being taken of liis request, he became so furious that liis hair stood np in anger and tilted against his hat, and he insisted on the ruler cf Cli'in acting as his, own ruler had acted instead of trying to make himself appear suj crior.
For an account of Li Lin-fu see flayers, No. For an account of Chao Tzu-lnng see Mayers, No. Ling-wang ruled from B. On ascending the throne, the Emperor ordered a search to be made for his old friend who had gone into retirement, and in order to facilitate inquiry had a likeness of him drawn.
He was ultimately discovered clothed in sheep's skin, and the Emperor went in person to visit him. On one occasion they slept together when the incident recorded in the text took place.
Now I " bow it out of reverence for his grace the Duke " Kwoh. For an account of T'ao Yiian-ming see Mayers, No. For an account of Kwei Fei see Mayers, No.
Ting Wei lived in the Sung dynasty, and was promoted to high office thruagh the influence of upon Avbom lie fiuvned to such an extent as to wipe his beard on one occasion when they were dining together.
Part of his bowel protruded, and not being able to push it in again, lie cut it off and recommenced the fight. Kao Tsn, the founder of the Han dynasty B.
For an account of Chang Liang - srr Mayei's, No. For an account of Tung' Faug-so see Mayers, No. It is related that Tung Fang-so met an old man who told liim that he had lived, on air for 9, years, and that he washed, his marrow and cnt his hair every 3, years.
See Leggc, page As a consequence tight lacing became common at his court and the imperial concubines, Avhen they expected a summons from their royal master, used to fast in order not to increase the size of their waist which caused the death of not a few.
Liu Ling replied that a body like his, which was no largei' than a fowl's rib, was not sufficient to accommodate the rustic's fist.
This so amused the latter that lie refrained from striking him. To this he smartly replied, " to allow such as you to go to and fro.
It is said that it is called " dog's hole" because dogs use it as a means of egress and ingress. From this habit he was nicknamed " The person who has ochre in his mouth.
Both lived in the time of Ch'eng Ti of the Eastern Chin. That is to say, I had heard that to establish faithful plans for a prince could make one an object of hatred to slanderers and I hastily passed it by as not true.
But a nine times broken arm makes one a doctor, and now I know it is true. That is to say, a man wlio has nine times broken his arm and passed through the experience of having it medicated so often, becomes thereby a good doctor, having a personal knowledge of the malady- Bo 1, having been cast off, believe and know that slanderers are the ruin of an honest man.
See ante, page , Xo. The carnal eye knows not tlio worthy mail. These are Buddhistic phrases. See Mencius Legge, page It is said that through the slave girl Ou Ming' attained to a position of great wealth.
Hsi Po ordered them to Tbe buried, acknowledging himself as their keeper notwithstanding the report of one of his officers, who stated that there was no one who owned them, 78 THE BODY.
For an account of this incident see ante, page 86, N"o. At last a doctor recommended him to use a concoction made up among other things of the ashes of burnt hair from the beard of a dragon.
The rebels wanted to force him to join their ranks, but on his steadily refusing to do so, they bound him to a post, and proceeded to cut him up in pieces, offering him his own flesh to eat.
Nothing daunted, Yen K'ao-ch'ing continued to rail at the robbers until at length they cut out his tongue.
He still tried to upbraid them, but death soon came to his relief. The result of his cxliortation was that Fu Shih-jc'ii did submit. This advice was followed and had the desired result, as all the officers , thought that, Yung Ch'i having received the rank of marquis, they had no grounds for alarm.
He was famous for his literary talents, but so ugly that, when he went abroad, he was pelted with stones till they filled his chariot. In the time of the Northern Snng A.
The two countries being so far separated took no interest in each other. THE BODY. Yu Ch'ao was one of the rulers of the lengenclary period of Chinese history see Mayers, page 3G5.
See ante, page 50, No. Though one of the highest officers of State, he built himself only a small abode. When the mansion is completed, the swallows congratulate each other.
Wei Cli'iieh, orginally the look-out beyond the palace gate where the edicts were issued. The latter had lost his brother, and was giving wa ' to grief instead of attending to public affairs which were in a very critical state.
Sun Ch'uan was so struck by the force of these remarks that he at once commenced to attend to his public duties. See Mencius'LeggX', pages and YvY an acconnt of K'ou Chun see Mayers, Xo.
CHAPTEK XIX. Whoever " in the world lias literary cultivation must have Uvvlvc " of us dragon guests in his ink.
See ante, page , No. His friends urged him to pursue some other profession but, instead of acting their advice, he made an inkstone of iron, and declared that when he had rubbed through it, lie would abandon his literary pursuit, but not till then.
He afterwards was successful in the examinations, and became a high niiiiist'er of State. His appearincc did not, however, improve.
Two of the sultan's nieces were about. Digitized by VjOOQ IC OF THE Iin IAN ISLANDEES. Now and then a single voice of great tenderness and melody may be found, but whenever an effortis made at nosing it for the accommodation of an audience, it becomes harsh and unmusical.
The singular fact of the sovereign havings among the Javanese, the most beautiful and admir- ed of his concubines instructed to dance, and their exhibiting their performance in public, accords with what I have stated respecting the condition of women among the Indian islanders.
Upon their head they had a sort of hat, made of spangles of gold, which glittered mightily, together with a plume about a foot and a half high, made of the same spangles.
This hat buBg down upon one ear. They had large ear-pendants of spangles of gold, hanging down to their shoulders. Their girdle was tied above the haunches, from which there hung a cloth of gold, with straight breeches underneath,.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC OF THE INDIAN ISLANDERS. The last deserve a particular description in this place.
The Javanese are the inventors of the Polynesian drama, and throughout the Archi- pelago are celebrated for their skill in it.
As the rudest and earliest efforts of the stage, and as af- fording interesting elucidations of the character and manners of the people, these exhibitions deserve a degree of attention which they are far from nmrit- ing on their own account.
Among the Javanese there are no dramatic writ- ings ; there is no stage, and no attempt at scenic deception.
The acting is of two kinds, in equal esteem among the people themselves, one consist- ing in the performance of living actors, and the other in that of puppets.
The first sometimes ex- hibit without masks, but much more frequently with them. They are invariably men, for women never perform.
The second are of two kinds, one consisting of ordinary puppets,' much inferior, in ingenuity, to those among ourselves, and the other of certain scenic shadows, which are peculiar and national.
These last are monstrous and grotesque figures, of about twenty inches long, cut out of a stift' untanned buffalo liide, and commonly very highly gilt and painted.
Each player does not study his part, or, at least, get it by heart ; but the little he says he furnishes unpremeditated, as his recollection of the story, or his fancy, may assist him.
This person's office is veiy inadequately described by calling him the prompt- er ; he is the soul of the whole drama, and his func- tions are better depicted by comparing him to our ancient bards or minstrels.
He does the same thing with the scenic shadows, sel- dom venturing, however, to furnish a dialogue for the puppets. The acting, consistent enough with the mannen of the people, is heavy and nouotonous.
There tt no life nor action in it, and nothing natural. Their dresses are characteristic and pro- per, generally in the ancient costume of the coun- try, suitably to the parts they have to perform.
A full band of Javanese music, in the manner of a chorus, constantly accompanies every kind of act- ing. The empire of custom, so arbitrary among all barbarians, renders it a rule not to be trans- gressed, that the performance by scenic shadows should be confined exclusively to the representa- tions of Hindu story ; the true acting to the most ancient portion of theif own legendary history, and the ordinary puppet-show to the more modem.
Besides the more regular dramatic entertain- VOL. I Digitized by VjOOQ IC 6AME8 AHD AMUffiHENTS ments now alluded to, there are two ptliers occa- sionally introduced, in the manner of interludes, between the scenes of the more regular perform- ances, which afford more amusement to the stran- ger.
One is an exhibition of buJFoonery, which I have seen so well acted as to afford much merri- ment. The only personages who eon bejacetidus, by the rules of the Javanese drama, are Sdmar and Bagongy the redoubted friends and servants of Ar- juna and Rama.
The acting of the persons who represent these characters is less constrained, more bustling, and more natural than that of any others.
So much drollery is frequently displayed as to con- vince us that the Javanese have considerable comic powers ; and that, if the sphere of their acting were enlarged, and their talent cultivated, they might make excellent comic actors.
Whatever strangers may think of the dramatic lentertainments of the Indian islanders, they excite a deep and lively interest in a native audience.
MANNERS OF FOREIGN SETTLERSt Different descriptions of foreign colonists. In their cha- racter these adventurers are shrewd, supple, unwar- like, mendacious, and avaricious.
Trade is their main pursuit, but when labour is well rewarded, as in the British settlement of Prince of Wales Island, they occupy themselves in day-labour.
A large portion of these emigrants return to India, but a considerable one also colonizes in the country, in- termarrying with the natives j for it is rarely that the females of their own nation accompany them.
This description of settlers is confined to the western portion of the Archipelago, and, comparatively, few of them are found beyond Su- matra and the Peninsula.
Of all foreign nations, the Cfiinese have settled in the greatest number in the Archipelago. The Chinese settlers may be described as at once enter- prising, keen, laborious, luxurious, sensual, de- bauchedt and pusillanimous.
They are most gene- rally engaged in trade, in which they are equally speculative, expert, and judicious. This skill is adrantageously transferred to the culture of tropical products, to that of the sugar-cane, pepper, and indigo.
Thoae from the lat- ter bear a much better character than those from the former. They are rarely from the lowest or- ders of society, and they are less gross and abject in their manners.
The principal bulk of the settlers are in Java, Borneo, and the iitde island of Penang ; but a few scattered families are to be found in every country of the Archipelago In any manner civilized.
These latter come hither sometime in June, about ten or twelve sail, and bring. They take up houses all by one another, at the end of the town next the sea : and that end of the ' city is called the China camp, because there they always quarter, and bring their goods ashore thither to sell.
In this fleet come several mechanics, viz. The Arab settlers are more considerable firom their influence than their numbers. But as their business decreases, their gaming among themselves in- creases ; for a Chinese, if he is not at work, had as lieve be without victuals as without gaming ; and they are very dex- terous at it.
Even the Europeans go thither for their diversion; the English, Dutch, and Danes, will go to drink their hoc-ciu, at some China merchant's house who sells it: for they have not tippling-houses.
The Dutch and Spaniards are the only Euro- pean people who have colonized in the Indian Archipelago, or at least who now exist there as colonists.
The Dutch are permitted freely to pmrchase and hold lands, and in Java especially may fairly be considered as naturalized.
Convivial gaiety seems to veign among them, and yet it is linked with a kind of suspicious reserve, which pervades all stations, and all companies, and is the consequence of an arbitrsry and jealous government.
I have heard many people assert, that they would not confide in their own brothers in this counUy. It is not that they have no opacity to learn, but the men have no inclination to teaeh.
This is done, by lay- ing aside the sword, pulling off the coat and wig, for most men wear wigs here, and substituting in the room of the last a little white night-cap, which is generally carried in the pocket for that purpose.
Those who come from Europe at a marriageable age are very few ia number. I shall, therefore, confine my observa- tions to the former.
There are many of dem who can neither read nor write, nor possess any ideas of religion, of morality, or of social in- tercourse.
But, alas! These nurses are often but one remove above a bmte, in point of in- leUeot ; -and the little innocents imbibe, with their vdlk.
K Digitized by VjOOQ IC MANNERS OF FOREIGN SETTLERS. Some of them do this in the morning, in one of the running streams out of the city.
If they discover the smallest familiarity between them, they set no bounds to their thirst of revenge'against those poor bondswomen, who, in most cases, have not dared to resist the will of their masters, for fear of ill treatment.
Digitized -by Google lAANIIEBS OF FDEEIGN SSTTLEBS. A cer- tain lady, who lost her husband whUe I was at Batavia, had, in the fourth week of her widowhood, a fourth lover, and, at the end of three months, she married again, and would have done it sooner, if the laws had allowed of it.
When they invite each other, it is always with the condition of coming with the long or short kabay. On Sundays tbey sometmes dress in the European style, with stays and other fashionable incum- tomces, which, however, they do not like at all, being accustottted to a dress so much loeeer, and more pleasaM in this torrid clime.
They are sumptuously adorned IS Digitized by VjOOQ IC MAMKEBS OF FORfilON SETTLERS. I, pp. He counselled me, if ever I married and had children, not to allow them to go to the Indies.
There is, to be sure, an inquisition, but the conniption of manners is not exposed to the censure of this tribunaL One proof of this corruption, the only one of which I can here be permitted to make mention, is the abuse of the baths.
It is true, that to bathe with the women, one must be a relation, or familiar friend j and although this man- ner of bathing be general, I have known some wo- men who revolted at the custom, and admitted no man into the bath when they were there.
The custom at Manilla, as in all hot countries, is to take a nap after dinner ; for the purpose of this indulgence they stretch many mats on the floor, and all lay themselves down upon them, both men and women, side by side, sleeping as they can.
They have likewise at Manilla an admirable secret for bringing about assignations. Every body smokes, women as well as men; they have for this purpose little rolls of tobacco, made expressly for the pur- pose, from four to five or six inches in length, and about the size of the thumb.
One rarely meets women in die streets, parti- cularly mestises, withont a segar in the mouth. It was at his own house that I saw them, and made this discovery.
This is about all the exterior form rf worship of the inhabitants. About six in the evening, they sound the Angelm at the same time in all the churches.
The cathe- drid commences, and at the same moment all the. I soon accustomed myself to this habit ; often it was my only supper. With respect to the Spanish, the chocolate does not prevent their sup- ping ; it is true, that at Manilla they do not sup till ten at night.
Le Gentil. Digitized by VjOOQ IC BOOK II. ARTS, CHAPTER t. USEFUL ARTS. Intention of the present chapter. AT Ho CMS USEFUL ART8. A few yards from this sea alage, if I may ad call it, are built, in a deeper water, ami on stronger posts, houses where only bachelors live.
Such monuments were constructed in Jaya, as will be seen in the chapter on Antiquities, when the Hindu religion flourished in that country, bat the knowledge of this art has ceased with the cause which gave birth to it, and this more im- proved architecture does not belong to the state of society of the present race of inhabitants.
It may farther be remarked, that the art of constructing edifices of stone must, in the In- dian islands, be looked upon not as one of native growth, but of foreign introduction.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC USEFUL ARTS. The ordinary habitations of the more improved tribes of the Indian islands are of two descriptions — those of the maritime — and those of the agricultu- ral tribes.
Of the first are those of the Malays, of most of the people of Sumatra, Borneo, and Cele- bes ; of the second, those of the Javanese, Balinese, and others.
The first are constructed on posts, and the access to them is invariably by a ladder. Their houses are all built on posts, about 14, 16, 18, or 20 foot high.
These posts are bigger or less, according to the intended magnificence of the superstructure. They have but one floor, but many partitions or rooms, and a ladder or stairs to go up out of the streets.
The roof is large,. It stands on about great posts or trees, a great deal higher than the common build- ing, with great broad stairs made to go up.
In the first room he hath about 0 iron guns, all saker and minion, placed on field-carriages. The general, and other great men, have some guns also in their houses.
Ibl ground, or on a slightly elevated terrace. This distinction, trifling as it may at first appear, has iU origin in the different circumstances under which the two classes exist, and their different state of society.
The maritime tribes inhabit the marshy banks of rivers and the sea coast, and for the purposes oi, health their habitations must be raised from the ground.
The grand materials of the structure of the houses of the Indian islanders are the bamboo, the rattan, the palmetto leaf, and wUd grass.
The posts which support the house are, according to circum- stances, either of wood or bamboo. The walls are made of plaited bamboo flattened, the roof of grass or palmetto leaves; the first most common with the agricultural tribes, , the last with the mftri- time, because the plant is the native of marshy lands, such as they usually inhabit.
The house of a peasant, in a populous part of Java, where ma- terials are not the most abundant, will not exceed the value of sixty days' labour.
The foll6wing is the description of a Panda- pa : A roof thatched, or occasionally Covered with shingles, four-sided, is supported by four wooden pillars.
Round this, the most material portion of the building, there is an awning of a few feet in depth, of light materials, supported by moveable props of bamboo.
Where privacy is required, the whole is closed in by a temporary paling, and, for convenience, divided into apartments by light par- titions.
The empty spaces are occupied by the prince's gardens, by tanks and ponds. The area is intersected by an endless labyrinth of walls, the whole being concealed, at any considerable dis- tance, by a profusion of ornamental and fruit trees.
A sketch of these singular structures may be inte- resting. These trees are considered almost sacred, and may be looked upon as remnants of Buddhism, for the Indian fig-tree is consecrated by the follow- ers of that sect.
Wherever these trees are found, even in the most desolate parts of the country, we are able to trace the palace or dwelling of some an- cient chief or prince.
A similar court to the one now described is found, in miniature, to the south side of the Kdraton. The only defences of the more ancient seem to have been towers ; the more mo- dem, in imitation of European fortresses, have their moats, their bastions, their ramparts, their embra- sures, and their parapets.
Of the extent of these walled cities we may form some notion by that of thtf modem one of the sultan of Java, which is three miles round, and contains a population of ten thousand inhabitants.
The largest of all was Mojo- pahit. Between the two opposite gates, the ruins of which still exist, there is a distance of about threfi Digitized by VjOOQ IC USEFUL ARTS.
They have their Alun-aluriy or great court, where they have, on Saturday even- ing, their tournaments and games ; and where, at festivals, their public processions are exhibited.
I67 The habitations of the Indian islanders are never, as in civilized communities, found single, and inso- sponding to all those employed hy our house-carpenters.
Their conception of proportions is extremely rude, often leaving those parts of a frame which have the greatest bear- ing with the weakest support, and lavishing strength upon inadequate pressure.
Across these are laid laths of split bam- boo, about an inch wide, and of the length of the room, which are tied down with fihunents of the rattan ; and over these are usually spread matts of different kinds.
This sort of flooring has an elasticity alarming to strangers when they flrst tread on it. In some places they use for the same purpose the kulitkayu, or coolicoy, as it is pronounced by the Europeans, who employ it on board ship, as dunnage, in pepper and other cargoes.
This is a bark procured from some particular trees, of which the bu- nut and ibu are the most common. Eacb cottage in this situation is invariably surrounded by a garden, and shaded by a few fruit or ornamental trees, so that the whole village is as if it were embosomed in an orchard, and the cottages wholly hid from view, the village appearing, to an unpractised eye, no more than a simple grove of evergreens.
The assemblage of dwellings thus formed is constantly surrounded by quickset hedges. A town, even where it consists of many thou- sand inhabitants, is no more than an aggregate of villages, distinguished by the superior size of the ed off, IB laid in the sun to dry, care being taken to prevent its warping.
That which is used in building has nearly the texture and hardness of wood. The pliable and dcHcate batfc of which clothing is made is pro- cured from a tree called kalawi, a bastard species of the bread-fruit.
These, previous to their being laid on, are formed into sheets of about five feet long, and as deep as the length of the leaf will admit, which is doubled at one end over a slip or lath of bamboo ; they are then disposed on the roof, so as that one sheet shaU lap over the other, and are tied to the bamboos which serve for raflers.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC USEFUL AVtS. In the first establishment or formation of a village on new ground, the intended settlers take care to provide themselves with sufficient garden ground round their huts Tor their stock, and to supply the ordinary wants of their families.
Such may be considered the usual appearance of the villages of the Indian islanders. An eminence difficult of ascent is usually made choice of for security.
The access to them is by foot. If a village, for example, be situated in an al- pine or mountainous country , the vegetation is there less luxuriant, and its protection less necessary to the comfort of the peasantry.
The site of the vil- lage is then generally on the declivity of a hill, and, being besides less obscured by the protection of trees, the dwellings distinctly appear.
The town of Pa- lembang in Sumatra, and Borneo in the great island which takes its European name from it, are the most remarkable examples of this.
Some of the dwellings in such situations are built on elevated stakes, within high- water mark, and others are built on moveable rafts of bamboo, moored to piles driven into the banks of the river.
In the middle of the square stands the balei or town hall, a room about fifty to an hundred feet long, and twenty or thirty wide, without division, and open at the udes, exceptmg' when on particular occasions it Is hung with matts or chintz; but sheltered in a lateral direction by the deep overhanging roof.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC USEFUL AETS. Les matsons sont confttruites de bois et port6es sur de grosses poutres pour les garantir de Teau.
The necessary furniture of an European dwelling has its origin in customs totally different from those of the Indian islanders, and in the necessities created by a climate the very reverse of that in which they live.
To protect us from the cold, we require soft and warm beds and thick coverings. Prussian Guard Reserve General von Gallwitz and XIth Army Corps General von Plüskow transferred from W to E Front.
Germans began to destroy Louvain. German cavalry in Lille. Fall of last two Namur forts. Fall of Longwy to German Fifth Army.
General Ruffey's Third Army falling back across the Meuse. Battle of Le Cateau. Allied forces engaged; British 2nd Corps, with 19th Brigade, its right at Le Cateau; 4th Divistion, its left at Esnes; General Sordet's Cavalry Corps and British 4th Cavalry Brigade prolonged to Cambrai, through which French 84th Territorial Division retiring.
British retiring. General von Kluck at Solesmes resumed independent command of First Army. French fell back in Alsace-Lorraine. HIMS Magdeburg ashore and blown up off Odensholm in Finland Gulf.
Part of crew rescued by TBD V 26, while HIMS Augsburg and U3 engaged Russian cruisers Pallada and Bogatyr. Russians occupied Tilsit.
Battle of Tannenburg E Prussia begun. General Samsonoff engaged Hindenburg at Allenstein-Mlava. Austrians evacuated Novi Bazar. HIJMSs Ibuki and Shikuma sent to Singapore to join Admiral Jerram's China squadron.
Attachment Togoland conquered. Western Front Second day of battle of Tannenberg: Germans bombard Usdau. British fall back from St. Lille and Mezieres occupied by the Germans.
Namur: Last of the forts reduced. Ostend occupied by mixed British force Marines, etc. Eastern Front Galicia: Russians capture Halicz and Tarnopol.
Naval and Overseas Operations "Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse" sunk by H. France: M. Viviani's Ministry reconstructed: entry of MM.
Millerand War and Delcasse Foreign Affairs. Yet, another very informative insight into the Guns of August period, Rob.
Thanks for keeping us updated :thumbsup: Just today I saw a newly printed B. Tuchman's phenomenal book on that on a bookshop shelve. This thread is great.
A daily calendar of events. Very interesting and informative. Western Front Germans capture Fort Manonviller Avricourt.
British on line Noyon-Chauny-La Fere: British cavalry successful near latter. Fall of Longwy. East Prussia: Russians approach Konigsberg in the north: but in the south the Battle of Tannenberg continues against them.
Naval and Overseas Operations Battle of Bight of Heligoland: the German cruisers "Mainz", "Koln", and "Ariadne" sunk.
On August 28, , World War I spreads from land to sea when the first major naval battle of the conflict breaks out between British and German ships in the North Sea, near the northern coast of Germany.
The battle occurred in a partially enclosed body of water known as Heligoland Bight, which was used to shelter several bases of the German High Seas Fleet and also offered a good starting-off point for attacks against the British Isles.
The German fleet had rarely ventured far from port, however, when British commander Reginald Tyrwhitt was given the task of leading a small fleet of British ships, including two light cruisers, Fearless and Arethusa , and a number of destroyers, into the bight in order to lure German ships to chase them out to sea, where a larger British force, commanded by Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty, would be waiting to confront them.
As the British attack had not caught the German fleet entirely by surprise, its defence was ready, and Tyrwhitt soon found his men outgunned by a German force, including six light cruisers, who used the thick fog hanging over the bight to partially conceal themselves and fire unexpectedly on the British ships.
The powerful British squadron subsequently sank three German cruisers and damaged three more, causing a total of 1, German casualties. Britain, on the other hand, lost only 35 sailors, and all of their ships remained afloat.
On the other side, the early defeat of the German High Seas Fleet by the mighty Royal Navy did much to intimidate Germany at sea at the outset of the war; Kaiser Wilhelm, for one, concluded that the navy should be kept off the open seas, as its best use was as a defensive weapon.
Western Front Stiff French rearguard fights. Battle of St Quentin: French counter attack under General Lanrezac.
Battle of Guise. Three German Corps heavily defeated by French Fifth Army. French retired behind River Aisne. British retire to line Compiegne-Soissons.
British base to be transferred to St Nazaire, with Le Mans as advanced base. Communications with Havre threatened.
Sir J French conferred with General Joffre. Germans occupy La Fere, Rethel, Amiens, etc. When the child is uncomfortable, When parents are more impatient, When a child develops diaper rash, Many parents think it is eczema, But….
Novice mothers will wonder why babies have frequent red ass? What if the baby has a red butt?