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Sun Merkur Picture of Planet Mercury VideoMerkur-Transit 09.05.2016
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His humour was dark and satirical, covering a huge array of topics including social issues, religion, philosophy and politics.
Her myriad of provocative stage personas ensure her ongoing status as a gay icon. He is openly bi-sexual. Her emphasis was on lyrics.
It seems she wrote for others because her nerves reportedly gave such severe stage fright, she very rarely took to the stage.
Deeply superstitious he also kept a St. Anthony statue about his person at all times. This is significantly smaller than that of Jupiter , which has the second smallest axial tilt of all planets at 3.
On average, Mercury is the closest planet to Earth, and to each of the other planets in the Solar System. Interestingly, many of these craters are named after famous deceased artists and authors.
There are also extensive mare-like plains present and the craters also indicate that the planet has been geologically inactive for billions of years.
It is believed that Mercury was heavy bombarded by comets and asteroids during and shortly after its formation 4.
It is believed that Mercury was volcanically active during this period. Basins such as the Caloris Basin were filled with magma, producing smooth plains similar to the lunar marias found on the Moon.
About 15 impact basins have been identified on Mercury, with more to be revealed. Two geologically distinct plains regions on Mercury have been identified.
These crater plains appear to have obliterated many earlier craters. Unlike lunar maria, the smooth plains of Mercury have the same albedo as the older inter-crater plains.
Other factors indicate that this shrinking and geological activity may be present to this day. The volcanic system on Mercury is quite complex, though its exact age is hard to pinpoint but it is speculated to be billions of years old.
Cafe Astrology. Sun conjunct Mercury Because the ego and the mind are aligned, people with Sun conjunct Mercury possess much mental energy.
Cafe Astrology Home. Share this Article Like this article? Email it to a friend! It is not clear whether they are volcanic lavas induced by the impact, or a large sheet of impact melt.
One unusual feature of Mercury's surface is the numerous compression folds, or rupes , that crisscross the plains. As Mercury's interior cooled, it contracted and its surface began to deform, creating wrinkle ridges and lobate scarps associated with thrust faults.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter discovered that similar small thrust faults exist on the Moon. It is thus a " compound volcano ". Although the daylight temperature at the surface of Mercury is generally extremely high, observations strongly suggest that ice frozen water exists on Mercury.
Mercury is too small and hot for its gravity to retain any significant atmosphere over long periods of time; it does have a tenuous surface-bounded exosphere  containing hydrogen , helium , oxygen , sodium , calcium , potassium and others at a surface pressure of less than approximately 0.
Hydrogen atoms and helium atoms probably come from the solar wind , diffusing into Mercury's magnetosphere before later escaping back into space.
Radioactive decay of elements within Mercury's crust is another source of helium, as well as sodium and potassium. Water vapor is present, released by a combination of processes such as: comets striking its surface, sputtering creating water out of hydrogen from the solar wind and oxygen from rock, and sublimation from reservoirs of water ice in the permanently shadowed polar craters.
Sodium, potassium and calcium were discovered in the atmosphere during the —s, and are thought to result primarily from the vaporization of surface rock struck by micrometeorite impacts  including presently from Comet Encke.
This would indicate an interaction between the magnetosphere and the planet's surface. Despite its small size and slow day-long rotation, Mercury has a significant, and apparently global, magnetic field.
According to measurements taken by Mariner 10 , it is about 1. The magnetic-field strength at Mercury's equator is about nT.
It is likely that this magnetic field is generated by a dynamo effect, in a manner similar to the magnetic field of Earth. Particularly strong tidal effects caused by the planet's high orbital eccentricity would serve to keep the core in the liquid state necessary for this dynamo effect.
Mercury's magnetic field is strong enough to deflect the solar wind around the planet, creating a magnetosphere. The planet's magnetosphere, though small enough to fit within Earth,  is strong enough to trap solar wind plasma.
This contributes to the space weathering of the planet's surface. Bursts of energetic particles in the planet's magnetotail indicate a dynamic quality to the planet's magnetosphere.
The spacecraft encountered magnetic "tornadoes" — twisted bundles of magnetic fields connecting the planetary magnetic field to interplanetary space — that were up to km wide or a third of the radius of the planet.
These twisted magnetic flux tubes, technically known as flux transfer events , form open windows in the planet's magnetic shield through which the solar wind may enter and directly impact Mercury's surface via magnetic reconnection  This also occurs in Earth's magnetic field.
Mercury has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets; its eccentricity is 0. It takes The diagram illustrates the effects of the eccentricity, showing Mercury's orbit overlaid with a circular orbit having the same semi-major axis.
Mercury's higher velocity when it is near perihelion is clear from the greater distance it covers in each 5-day interval.
In the diagram the varying distance of Mercury to the Sun is represented by the size of the planet, which is inversely proportional to Mercury's distance from the Sun.
This varying distance to the Sun leads to Mercury's surface being flexed by tidal bulges raised by the Sun that are about 17 times stronger than the Moon's on Earth.
Mercury's orbit is inclined by 7 degrees to the plane of Earth's orbit the ecliptic , as shown in the diagram on the right. As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between Earth and the Sun, which is in May or November.
This occurs about every seven years on average. Mercury's axial tilt is almost zero,  with the best measured value as low as 0.
This means that to an observer at Mercury's poles, the center of the Sun never rises more than 2.
At certain points on Mercury's surface, an observer would be able to see the Sun peek up a little more than two-thirds of the way over the horizon, then reverse and set before rising again, all within the same Mercurian day.
Thus, to a hypothetical observer on Mercury, the Sun appears to move in a retrograde direction. Four Earth days after perihelion, the Sun's normal apparent motion resumes.
For the same reason, there are two points on Mercury's equator, degrees apart in longitude , at either of which, around perihelion in alternate Mercurian years once a Mercurian day , the Sun passes overhead, then reverses its apparent motion and passes overhead again, then reverses a second time and passes overhead a third time, taking a total of about 16 Earth-days for this entire process.
In the other alternate Mercurian years, the same thing happens at the other of these two points. The amplitude of the retrograde motion is small, so the overall effect is that, for two or three weeks, the Sun is almost stationary overhead, and is at its most brilliant because Mercury is at perihelion, its closest to the Sun.
This prolonged exposure to the Sun at its brightest makes these two points the hottest places on Mercury.
Maximum temperature occurs when the Sun is at an angle of about 25 degrees past noon due to diurnal temperature lag , at 0.
These points, which are the ones on the equator where the apparent retrograde motion of the Sun happens when it is crossing the horizon as described in the preceding paragraph, receive much less solar heat than the first ones described above.
Mercury attains inferior conjunction nearest approach to Earth every Earth days on average,  but this interval can range from days to days due to the planet's eccentric orbit.
Mercury can come as near as This large range arises from the planet's high orbital eccentricity. The longitude convention for Mercury puts the zero of longitude at one of the two hottest points on the surface, as described above.
However, when this area was first visited, by Mariner 10 , this zero meridian was in darkness, so it was impossible to select a feature on the surface to define the exact position of the meridian.
Therefore, a small crater further west was chosen, called Hun Kal , which provides the exact reference point for measuring longitude.
A International Astronomical Union resolution suggests that longitudes be measured positively in the westerly direction on Mercury.
For many years it was thought that Mercury was synchronously tidally locked with the Sun, rotating once for each orbit and always keeping the same face directed towards the Sun, in the same way that the same side of the Moon always faces Earth.
Radar observations in proved that the planet has a spin-orbit resonance, rotating three times for every two revolutions around the Sun.
The eccentricity of Mercury's orbit makes this resonance stable—at perihelion, when the solar tide is strongest, the Sun is nearly still in Mercury's sky.
The rare resonant tidal locking is stabilized by the variance of the tidal force along Mercury's eccentric orbit, acting on a permanent dipole component of Mercury's mass distribution.
However, with noticeable eccentricity, like that of Mercury's orbit, the tidal force has a maximum at perihelion and therefore stabilizes resonances, like , enforcing that the planet points its axis of least inertia roughly at the Sun when passing through perihelion.
The original reason astronomers thought it was synchronously locked was that, whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always nearly at the same point in its resonance, hence showing the same face.
This is because, coincidentally, Mercury's rotation period is almost exactly half of its synodic period with respect to Earth. Due to Mercury's spin-orbit resonance, a solar day the length between two meridian transits of the Sun lasts about Earth days.
Simulations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of Mercury varies chaotically from nearly zero circular to more than 0.
In , the French mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier reported that the slow precession of Mercury's orbit around the Sun could not be completely explained by Newtonian mechanics and perturbations by the known planets.
He suggested, among possible explanations, that another planet or perhaps instead a series of smaller 'corpuscules' might exist in an orbit even closer to the Sun than that of Mercury, to account for this perturbation.
The success of the search for Neptune based on its perturbations of the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to place faith in this possible explanation, and the hypothetical planet was named Vulcan , but no such planet was ever found.
The perihelion precession of Mercury is 5, arcseconds 1. Newtonian mechanics, taking into account all the effects from the other planets, predicts a precession of 5, arcseconds 1.
The effect is small: just Similar, but much smaller, effects exist for other Solar System bodies: 8.
Filling in the values gives a result of 0. This is in close agreement with the accepted value of Mercury's perihelion advance of There may be scientific support, based on studies reported in March , for considering that parts of the planet Mercury may have been habitable , and perhaps that life forms , albeit likely primitive microorganisms , may have existed on the planet.
Mercury can be observed for only a brief period during either morning or evening twilight. Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse.
Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction. The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun,  except its new phase during a transit.
Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance.
Nonetheless, the brightest full phase appearance of Mercury is an essentially impossible time for practical observation, because of the extreme proximity of the Sun.
Mercury is best observed at the first and last quarter, although they are phases of lesser brightness. The first and last quarter phases occur at greatest elongation east and west of the Sun, respectively.
At both of these times Mercury's separation from the Sun ranges anywhere from Mercury can be easily seen from the tropics and subtropics more than from higher latitudes.
Viewed from low latitudes and at the right times of year, the ecliptic intersects the horizon at a steep angle. At middle latitudes , Mercury is more often and easily visible from the Southern Hemisphere than from the Northern.
This is because Mercury's maximum western elongation occurs only during early autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas its greatest eastern elongation happens only during late winter in the Southern Hemisphere.
An alternate method for viewing Mercury involves observing the planet during daylight hours when conditions are clear, ideally when it is at its greatest elongation.
Care must be taken to ensure the instrument isn't pointed directly towards the Sun because of the risk for eye damage. This method bypasses the limitation of twilight observing when the ecliptic is located at a low elevation e.
Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.
Because the shift of 0. The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the Mul. Apin tablets. These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.
Apin tablets is transcribed as Udu. Ud "the jumping planet". The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the gods in their mythology.
The ancients knew Mercury by different names depending on whether it was an evening star or a morning star. By about BC, the ancient Greeks had realized the two stars were one.
Planet Mercury in astrology is connected with creativity and mental abilities. The transit of the planet Mercury between the Sun and the Earth will cause these retrogrades.
These retrogrades normally last for three weeks while the overall effects will be felt over a period of 2 months. Capricorn, Taurus and Virgo are all earth zodiac signs and the retrogrades will bring in changes in the physical elements.
They will directly influence the health, financial situation and professional environment during the periods of Mercury Retrograde in This is a year of completion of the existing ideas and projects paving the way for fresh thoughts and projects next year.
We can enjoy the benefits of our actions over the past eight years and review about the necessary changes for the next nine year cycle based on our past experience.
Tags Mercury mercury retrograde. You got the information presented wrongly. When Mercury starts retrograde phase, usually it ends in the sign previous to the sign where the phase started.
Your email address will not be published. Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest.Aerobraking is ruled out because Mercury has a negligible atmosphere. In JuneSoviet Spiele Die Kostenlos Sind at the Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the USSR Vox Tiersendung of Sciencesled by Vladimir Kotelnikovbecame the first to Spielhallen Automaten a radar signal off Mercury and receive it, starting radar observations of the planet. Archived from the original on July 21, Prinz Ozeanus Retrieved March 2,